Both its legs and toes are a light reddish-orange color. (a) that the female bird was out of her senses after the death of the male bird.  Breeding success, and proportions of pairs that raised two chicks each, was similar in each floodplain. They are a symbol of marital virtue and in parts of Gujarat/India, it is a custom to take a newly wed couple to see a pair of sarus cranes. The sarus crane is easily distinguished from other cranes in the region by its overall grey colour and the contrasting red head and upper neck. 108 BARABOO, WI â The International Crane Foundation will celebrate its annual Cranes of the World Festival Saturday, August 5, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., at its global headquarters in Baraboo, Wisconsin.. Come meet all 15 species of cranes from around the world. (a) the sun was unwilling to rise. A poet tells about the cold nature of a killer. In India, they are considered symbols of marital fidelity, believed to mate for life and pine the loss of their mates, even to the point of starving to death. Gopi Sundar . How was the majestic neck humbled by the hunter?. b. sunset (b) the dead body of the bird. They were also successfully bred in captivity early in the 17th century by Emperor Jehangir, who also noted that the eggs were laid with an interval of two days and that incubation period was 34 days. Young sarus cranes have brownish feathers that turn gray as the bird gets older.  Young birds constituted 5.32% to 7.36% of the wintering population between 1997 and 2002. Please do not substitute this template. , The nests can be more than 2 m (6 ft) in diameter and nearly 1 m (3 ft) high. Crane movements are well known for their fluidity and grace. Finally, a wave that the female crane had never seen before comes and sweeps her away to death and closer to the dead male crane. and flung it into a course bag as if it were a piece of dirty linen and the bag a washing bag. It returns to the spot when the hunter goes away. Question 4. Increased agricultural intensity is often thought to have led to declines in sarus crane numbers, but they also benefit from wetland crops and the construction of canals and reservoirs.  The attitude of farmers tends to be positive in spite of these damages, and this has helped in conserving the species within agricultural areas.  As of 2019[update], attempts to reintroduce the birds to eastern Thailand have shown some promise.  In the dry season, cranes flocking in Southeast Asian wetlands are in areas with an abundance of Eleocharis dulcis and E. spiralis, both of which produce tubers on which the cranes are known to feed. Among the four social structures, 80% of sarus cranes were classified as a pair and 7% were classified as a single bird . Having seen its mate shot dead by the hunters and being taken away, the female sarus is heartbroken. Breeding success in Australia has been estimated by counting the proportion of young-of-the-year in wintering flocks in the crop fields of Atherton Tablelands in north-eastern Queensland. , The common name sarus is from the Hindi name (sāras) for the species. The population in Australia (initially placed in A. a. sharpii (sometimes spelt sharpei, but amended to conform to the rules of Latin grammar) was separated and named as the race A. a. gilliae, sometimes spelt gillae or even gilli), prior to a genetic analysis. The crane was a bird of omen.  Sarus cranes are rare in West Bengal and Assam, and are no longer found in the state of Bihar.  They are uncommon in Kakadu National Park, where the species is often hard to find among the more numerous brolgas. The hunters were not touched by the beauty of the bird. This bird, which was taken out of the King's palace at Lucknow, was very fierce towards strangers and dogs, especially if they were afraid of him.  The first is the "wintering population" of a small number of sarus cranes that use wetlands in the state of Punjab during winters. The Australian population shows the most recent divergence from the ancestral form with an estimated 3000 generations of breeding within Australia. From the Winter 2018 issue of Living Bird magazine. Janaki Lenin October 26, 2019 16:40 IST Updated: October 25, 2019 15:45 IST  Carefully mapping of breeding areas of sarus cranes in Australia is needed to understand their distribution range. She was always very happy, and the death of the male bird pushed her towards sadness. The species is venerated in India and legend has it that the poet Valmiki cursed a hunter for killing a sarus crane and was then inspired to write the epic Ramayana. Photo by K. S. Gopi Sundar. The sarus crane (Grus antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and Australia.It is the tallest flying bird, and can grow to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) tall. He was very noisy—the only bad habit he possessed, The Indian state of Uttar Pradesh has declared the sarus crane as its official state bird.  The clutch is one or two eggs (rarely three or four) which are incubated by both sexes for about 31 days (range 26–35 days). The adult sarus crane is very large, with grey wings and body, a bare red head and part of the upper neck; a greyish crown, and a long, greenish-grey, pointed bill. d. not clear Individually note down the points for each question and then develop the points into one-paragraph answers. Strong cultural ties to cranes and wetlands in South/Southeast Asia provide unique opportunities to engage people in the conservation of these intensely settled landscapes using the Sarus Crane as a flagship species, which in turn also benefits local communities and other species.  Breeding pairs are territorial and prefer to forage in natural wetlands, though wetland crops such as rice and wheat are also frequented.  The source of this population is unclear, but is very likely to be from the growing population in Himachal Pradesh. Part 2", "Notes on birds observed in Oudh and Kumaon", "After IAF, Indian Posts shows interest for NAL Saras", "The use of the anaesthetic "CT1341" in a Sarus crane", "Isolation of a sex-Linked DNA sequence in cranes", 10.1675/1524-4695(2006)29[365:fsdahs]2.0.co;2, The Cranes Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Sarus Crane (, Sarus Crane (International Crane Foundation), International Crane Foundation (literature), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sarus_crane&oldid=989048124, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 19:29. Eggs are chalky white and weigh about 240 grams. No distinctive characteristic is known of this population.  The role of rice paddies and associated irrigation structures may be particularly important for the birds' conservation, since natural wetlands are increasingly threatened by human activity.  In Southeast Asia, cranes congregate in few remnant wetlands during the dry season. b. the dead body of the bird  In captivity, birds breed only after their fifth year. [note 1] Premature adult mortality is often the result of human actions. Among the Gondi people, the tribes classified as "five-god worshippers" consider the sarus crane as sacred. hyacinth has spread in the pond. , Breeding success (percentage of eggs hatching and surviving to fledging stage) has been estimated to be about 20% in Gujarat and 51–58% in south-western Uttar Pradesh. They picked up the dead bird by its hands and jaws , Eggs are often destroyed at the nest by jungle (Corvus macrorhynchos) and house crows (C. splendens) in India. Among 77 observation points, 183 sarus cranes were recorded. The time of the day suggested in the poem is , The sarus crane is classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. A 2005 genetic analysis suggested that these three populations are representatives of a formerly continuous population that varied clinally.  The third record is a one-month study that provides details of 32 nests located within 10-km around Morr Morr cattle station in the Gilbert River floodplains. This sighting in itself is a case of research as the same pair arrives at the same agricultural field. Hunter shoots down a bird and picking it up, throws it into a washing bag. These include "dancing" movements that are performed both during and outside the breeding season and involve a short series of jumping and bowing movements made as one of the pair circles around the other. Answer: , Two distinct populations of sarus cranes occur in Southeast Asia, the northern population in China and Myanmar, and the southern population in Cambodia and Vietnam.  The global range has shrunk and the largest occupied area, and the largest known population, is in India.  The conversion of wetlands to farmland, and farmland to more urban uses are major causes for habitat loss and long-term population decline. This video will explain the poem in detail. , The young birds are easily reared by hand, and become very tame and attached to the person who feeds them, following him like a dog. , Although venerated and protected by Indians, these birds were hunted during the colonial period.  The Australian population is greater than 5,000 birds and may be increasing, however, the Southeast Asian population has been decimated by war and habitat change (such as intensive agriculture, deforestation, and draining of wetlands), and by the mid-20th century, had disappeared from large parts of its range which once stretched north to southern China. It provides the analysis in detail.  Native Australians, however, differentiated the sarus and the brolga and called the sarus "the crane that dips its head in blood".  Removal of eggs by farmers (to reduce crop damage) or children (in play), or by migrant labourers for food or opportunistic egg collection during trips to collect forest resources are prominent causes of egg mortality. In Uttar Pradesh, less than a tenth of the breeding pairs maintain territories at wetlands while the rest of the pairs are scattered in smaller wetlands and agricultural fields. To a Pair of Sarus Cranes by Manmohan Singh About the Author: Manmohan Singh, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service, is a contemporary poet. One which I kept, when bread and milk was given to him, would take the bread out of the milk, and wash it in his pan of water before eating it. GA This article has been rated as GA-Class on the project's quality scale. They are considered sacred and the birds are traditionally left unharmed, and in many areas, they are unafraid of humans. c. urgency of the hunters. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.  In Australia they are found only in the north-east, and are partly migratory in some areas. They forage on marshes and shallow wetlands for roots, tubers, insects, crustaceans, and small vertebrate prey.  The sarus crane breeds in some high elevation regions such as near the Pong Dam in Himachal Pradesh, where populations may be growing in response to increasing rice cultivation along the reservoir. The meat of the sarus was considered tabooin ancient Hindu scriptures. In South Asia, four distinct population-level behaviours have been noted.  In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, four species, including the sarus crane, were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone that had originally been erected by German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1853.  Pairs may indulge in spectacular displays of calling in unison and posturing. The female crane is distressed at the scene she witnesses, she gracefully flies around the scene in circles and croons over the disgraceful end of her partner. , Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, from a limited number of specimens, suggested that gene flow occurred within the continental Asian populations until the 20th-century reductions in range, and that Australia was colonized only in the Late Pleistocene, some 35,000 years ago. Farmers are also transitioning from field crops to perennial and tree crops that have higher returns.  When disturbed from the nest, parents may sometimes attempt to conceal the eggs by attempting to cover them with material from the edge of the nest. The species no longer breeds in Punjab, though it winters regularly in the state.  Non-breeding birds form flocks that vary from 1–430 birds. The effects of inbreeding in the Australian population, once thought to be a significant threat due to hybridization with brolgas producing hybrid birds called "sarolgas", is now confirmed to be minimal, suggesting that it is not a major threat.  In areas with perennial wetlands on the landscape, such as in western Uttar Pradesh, numbers of nonbreeding sarus cranes in flocks can be relatively stable throughout the year. KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions  An additional subspecies, A. a. luzonica, was suggested for the population once found, but now extinct, in the Philippines. It was shot when the bird had dipped its beak in the water.  Many farmers in India believe that these cranes damage standing crops, particularly rice, although studies show that direct feeding on rice grains resulted in losses amounting to less than 1% and trampling could account for grain loss around 0.4–15 kilograms (0.88–33.07 lb). They roost in shallow water, where they may be safe from some ground predators. , Young birds were often captured and kept in menageries, both in India and in Europe in former times.  More pairs are able to raise chicks in years with higher total rainfall, and when territory quality was undisturbed due to increased farming or development. Habitat and Range: Saris cranes are found in northern India and Indochina.  The eggshells are removed by the parents after the chicks hatch either by carrying away the fragments or by swallowing them. Like all cranes, the sarus crane has very long, spindly legs.  Adults have been known to fly into power lines and die of electrocution, this is responsible for killing about 1% of the local population each year. This suggests, A killer shot dead the male crane when it was least expected. In the first 4 lines, there is an exaggeration in the description. In Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, and Kasganj districts, nonbreeding sarus cranes form up to 65% of the regional population. Nest success of protected nests was significantly higher than that of unprotected nests, and positive population-level impacts were apparent. She encircles the death scene making shrill cries over it. Finally, a wave that the female crane had never seen before comes and sweeps her away to death and closer to the dead male crane. The sarus crane (Antigone antigone) is a large nonmigratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Australia.  Threats include habitat destruction and/or degradation, hunting and collecting, and environmental pollution, and possibly diseases or competing species. I am very happy i gt all the Q& A. The Hindi word is derived from the Sanskrit word sarasa for the "lake bird", (sometimes corrupted to sārhans). Answer:  When alarmed, the parent cranes use a low korr-rr call that signals chicks to freeze and lie still.  Breeding pairs in Australia similarly defend territories from neighbouring crane pairs, and nonbreeding birds are found in flocks frequently mixed with brolgas. The Sarus Crane is not only largest of the 15 species of crane, but it is also the largest flying bird in the world: it can reach a height of 1.8 metres.. Pick out any two figures of speech used in the poem and explain how they add to the effectiveness of the poem. The Sarus Crane is a resident of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. a. callousness of the hunters. A pair of sarus cranes performing to intimidate a trespassing crane. Permanent removal of pairs from the population due to developmental activities caused reduced population viability, and was a far more important factor impacting breeding success relative to total annual rainfall.. The first stanza of the poet contains a figure os speech – the hyperbole – which is used to highlight a particular point through exaggeration. The sarus cranes in India (referred to as A. a. antigone) are the largest, and in the east from Myanmar is replaced by a population that extends into Southeast Asia (referred to as A. a. sharpii). Cranes are very large birds, often considered the world's tallest flying birds. Answer: Photo: K.S. Sarus cranes are the largest of all the crane species and the tallest flying bird alive today.  In Australia, the sarus can easily be mistaken for the more widespread brolga.  In Australia, suspected predators of young birds include the dingo (Canis dingo) and fox (Vulpes vulpes), while brahminy kites (Haliastur indus) have been known to take eggs. After the killers had left the place, the female bird returned to the death scene and kept flying around whining for its companions« with short and long wails resembling the Morse Code. âPoetry is my earnest and natural expression, and this book, which is my second, the first being in Hindustani, has been written for my daughter, a constant source of inspiration and encouragement,â reflects Mitwa, at the release of the book (published by Unistar), at Punjab Kala Bhawan on Tuesday. , Until recently, little was known of sarus crane ecology from Australia.  Adult birds do not moult their feathers annually, but feathers are replaced about once every two to three years. And the poet says that the female sarus crane went beyond Humeâs words and beyond the legends and fables of human love.  Nest initiation in northern Queensland is also closely tied to rainfall patterns, with most nests being initiated immediately after the first major rains. It could be a wave of grief which the bird had never known as long as her partner was alive. A: There are 15 species in the crane family Gruidae. Chicks are also prone to predation (estimated at about 8%) and collection at the nest, but more than 30% die of unknown reasons. In this manner, the majestic neck has humbled the hunter. It means that The chicks are fed by the parents for the first few days, but are able to feed independently after that, and follow their parents for food.  Young birds stay with their parents until the subsequent breeding season. d. the desperate act of the female bird to bring the male bird back to life.  While Indians held the species in veneration, British soldiers in colonial India hunted the bird, calling it the serious or even cyrus.  Flocks of over 100 birds are also reported from Gujarat in India and Australia. Question 8. The female bird flies around crying when male bird is shot. , In captivity, sarus cranes have been known to live for as long as 42 years. , The sarus crane was formerly placed in the genus Grus, but a molecular phylogenetic study published in 2010 found that the genus, as then defined, was polyphyletic. The neck of a Sarus crane is very long, graceful and beautiful. Unlike many other cranes that make long migrations, sarus cranes are largely nonmigratory and few populations make relative short-distance migrations.  Territorial, breeding sarus crane pairs in northern Queensland along the Gulf of Carpentaria use a range of habitats, but preferentially use low, open woodland on quaternary alluvial plains in outer river deltas and levees with a vegetation of Lysiphyllum cunninghamii, Eucalyptus microtheca, Corymbia confertiflora, Melaleuca spp., Excoecaria parvifolia, Atalaya hemiglauca, Grevillea striata, Eucalyptus leptophleba, C. polycarpa, C. confertiflora, and C. , The species has historically been widely distributed on the lowlands of India along the Gangetic plains, extending south to the Godavari River, west to coastal Gujarat, the Tharparkar District of Pakistan, and east to West Bengal and Assam. At a time when the bird was stretching its neck and trying to do something impossible like pulling the sun out of the rim of the horizon, the bird was shot in the neck.  Pairs show high fidelity to the nest site, often refurbishing and reusing a nest for as many as five breeding seasons. A study conducted at the Rome zoo noted that these birds were resistant to anthrax. The Greek word for crane is ÎÎµÏÎ±Î½Î¿Ï (Geranos), which gives us the so called Cranesbill, or hardy geranium. The proud, dignified bird was killed and thrown into the washing bag like dirty linen. A Pair of Sarus Cranes. Question 5. Little is known about the diseases and parasites of the sarus crane, and their effects on wild bird populations. The bent neck of the bird and the eager movements of the bird are shown thus.
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